GRAVITY spectro-interferometric study of the massive multiple stellar system HD 93 206 A

Sánchez-Bermúdez, J.; Alberdi, A.; Barba, R.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Cantalloube, F.; Brandner, W.; Henning, Th.; Hummel, C. A.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Pott, J.-U.; Schoedel, R.; van Boekel, R.

August, 2017

Characterization of the dynamics of massive star systems and the astrophysical properties of the interacting components are a prerequisite for understanding their formation and evolution. Optical interferometry at milliarcsecond resolution is a key observing technique for resolving high-mass multiple compact systems. Here, we report on Very Large Telescope Interferometer/GRAVITY, Magellan/Folded-port InfraRed Echellette, and MPG2.2 m/FEROS observations of the late-O/early-B type system HD 93206 A, which is a member of the massive cluster Collinder 228 in the Carina nebula complex. With a total mass of about 90 {M}ȯ , it is one of the most compact massive quadruple systems known. In addition to measuring the separation and position angle of the outer binary Aa–Ac, we observe Brγ and He i variability in phase with the orbital motion of the two inner binaries. From the differential phase ({{{Δ }}}φ ) analysis, we conclude that the Brγ emission arises from the interaction regions within the components of the individual binaries, which is consistent with previous models for the X-ray emission of the system based on wind–wind interaction. With an average 3σ deviation of {{{Δ }}}φ ∼ 15^\circ , we establish an upper limit of p ∼ 0.157 mas (0.35 au) for the size of the Brγ line-emitting region. Future interferometric observations with GRAVITY using the 8 m Unit Telescopes will allow us to constrain the line-emitting regions down to angular sizes of 20 μas (0.05 au at the distance of the Carina nebula).